The abnormal expansion of cells that begins in one or both lungs, commonly in the cells covering the air passages is known as lung cancer. These abnormal cells do not advance into a healthful lung ornament and as a conclusion of this, they subdivide for assemble tumors. These countless and large tumors decrease the lungs and due to this they cannot provide the bloodstream with oxygen.
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: This cancer can be classify into three main types-
Large Cell Carcinoma : This type got its name from the big spherical cells that can be examined under a microscope. Comparable carcinoma is the other name for this type.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma: It is treated as the most common type of lung cancer that grows in the cell covering the airways. Smoking is the leading cause of this type of lung cancer.
Adenocarcinoma : This type grows from the cells which produces mucus in the airway lining.
Mesothelioma : This is considered as not so common type that may disturb the covering of the lung. Mesothelioma lines inside the chest and envelope the surface of the lungs. People who are difficulty from asbestos develop this type of lung cancer.
Small Cell Lung Cancer : In this type of lung cancer, the cancer cells develop to be very small when examined under the microscope. It is also attributing to as oat cell cancer. Smoking is treated as the leading cause of this type of lung cancer. It is a fast-developing lung cancer that may advance very immediately.
Rarer Types of Lung Cancer: Carcinoid tumor is treated as a rare type of lung cancer. This is also treated as a type of neuroendocrine cancer. Soft tissue sarcomas are also a rare type of lung cancer.
Extensive Stage: The cancer in this stage has spread to different areas of the chest or different parts of the body.
Limited Stage: The cancer in this moment is on one side of the chest that associate only one part of the lung and also neighboring lymph nodes.
Stage 1 : In this stage, cancer has not spread to lymph nodes and is located in the lungs.
Stage 2 : In this stage, cancer is there in surrounding lymph nodes and in the lung.
Stage 3 : Also known as locally advanced disease, this type of cancer is there in the lymph nodes in the middle of the chest and lungs. This stage can be further categorized into 2 subtypes –
When the cancer spreads to the lymph nodes at the same side of the chest from where cancer has begun. This stage is known as IIIA stage.
When the cancer spread to the lymph nodes above the collar bone and on the opposite side of the chest then this stage is referred to as IIIB stage.
Stage 4 : In this advanced stage, the cancer has spread to both the lungs to different parts of the body that may include liver or some other organ.
Difficulty in swallowing
Raspy, chronic or hacking coughing sometimes with blood-streaked mucus
Weakness and pain in the hand, shoulder or arm
Frequent respiratory infections such as pneumonia or bronchitis
Weakness, severe headaches, body pain, fatigue, intermittent fever, loss of appetite and weight
Continuous increase in shortness of breath, wheezing and also constant chest pain
Face and neck swelling
A number of test are achieve for analyze lung cancer that include –
Tissue Sample (biopsy): In biopsy procedure, an abnormal cell sample is detached. A surgery can be achieve in a number of ways that include bronchoscopy. In bronchoscopy, abnormal areas of the lungs are examined by light tube that is passed down through the throat and is then progressive into the lungs. Mediastinoscopy is yet another biopsy measure in which tissue samples are taken from lymph nodes by making an incision at the base of the neck and then introduce surgical tools from behind the breastbone. Needle biopsy is used for assemble apprehensive cells by using CT images or X-ray that guide a needle from the chest into the lung tissue.
Imaging Tests: In this, an abnormal nodule or mass can be easily detected through an x-ray image of the lungs. Small lesions can also be detected while performing an x-ray.
Spuctum Cytology: The existence of lung cancer cells can be easily distinguish by consider the spectrum under the microscope.
The hospitalization for lung cancer depends on the stage of the cancer, intimate characteristics, health status, type of the cancer and age. A number of therapies are administered to a patient as there is no single treatment applicable for lung cancer. Radiation, surgery and chemotherapy are treated as the major lung cancer treatment.
Radiation Therapy: Here high energy rays are aim on the lung cancer tumors for destroying them. A damaged is caused to the molecules which are answerable for making cancer cells. High-energy gamma rays are appropriate in radiation therapy (also known as radiotherapy) and are expend from the metals like high-energy x-rays or radium that are composed in a special machine. The major treatment for lung cancer is radiation therapy used for destroying cancer cells that have penetrate or also for destroying the remaining cells left after the surgery.
Surgery: One of the oldest arrangements for treating lung cancer is surgery. The surgical discharge of the tumor and surrounding lymph nodes is done if there is I or II stage cancer that has not metastasized. Reassuring or healthful are the two types of lung cancer surgeries. Palliative surgery may not remove cancer but can remove an open airway or obstruction that was making the patient annoying. Curative surgery removes all types of cancerous tissue in that inmate who are in previous stage lung cancer.
Chemotherapy: Strong chemicals are used in chemotherapy that intrudes with cell distribution process and damages DNA or proteins. The aim of these treatments is to immediately divide the cells. The normal cells can be reborn from any chemical-induced damage whereas cancer cells cannot be recovered. The medicines in chemotherapy travel in an efficient way by passing from the complete body and destroying the original tumor cells that have advance in the whole body. Usually many therapies are connected that also includes many types of chemotherapy. Sometimes, chemotherapy is also administer as ancillary therapy which is designed for reducing cancer frequency risk and also destroys the actual cells after the surgery. In order to make surgery more successful, chemotherapy can also be given before surgery (known as neo-adjuvant theory) for shrinking the tumors.